Critical pedagogies, including culturally responsive teaching, must exam how grades can perpetuate inequities across dimensions of difference. While A-F grading seems inextricable from assessment in higher education, a number of scholars have developed methods of assessment that more accurately express a student's mastery of content.
The chapters by Feldman linked below are useful for jumpstarting grade and assessment relevant discourse.
"...Is extra credit really equitable and bias resistant? Does it conform to our Driving Principle that a grade should reflect a student's knowledge and not the environment that is outside her control?
No. Here are four reasons why." (Feldman, linked below)
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